By Enrico Perla, Massimiliano Oldani
The variety of defense countermeasures opposed to user-land exploitation is at the upward thrust. due to this, kernel exploitation is changing into even more well known between make the most writers and attackers. twiddling with the center of the working approach could be a harmful video game: This publication covers the theoretical recommendations and methods had to advance trustworthy and powerful kernel-level exploits and applies them to various working structures (Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X, and Windows). Kernel exploits require either artwork and technology to accomplish. each OS has its quirks and so each make the most has to be molded to totally make the most its goal. This booklet discusses the preferred OS families-UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, and Windows-and the best way to achieve whole keep an eye on over them. suggestions and strategies are offered categorically in order that even if a particularly certain take advantage of has been patched, the foundational details that you've got learn may help you to put in writing a more recent, greater assault or a extra concrete layout and protective structure.
* Covers more than a few working method households - UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, Windows
* information universal eventualities corresponding to universal reminiscence corruption (stack overflow, heap overflow, etc.) concerns, logical insects and race conditions
* supplies the reader from user-land exploitation to the realm of kernel-land (OS) exploits/attacks, with a specific concentrate on the stairs that result in the production of profitable thoughts, so that it will supply to the reader whatever greater than only a set of tricks
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Additional resources for A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core
In other words, whatever message arrives on that socket would be implicitly trusted by the application, and whatever command is inside that message will be parsed and executed (as we show, for example, at ). Unfortunately, it turned out that it was not very complicated to send a message, as a regular user, to the udevd netlink socket. Whereas multicast (one-tomany) sockets are reserved for root only, unicast (one-to-one) sockets are not. The only thing that is required is the correct destination, which, for this type of socket, is the pid of the process.
On the other side of the fence there is the Microsoft Windows family and some commercial UNIX derivates, such as IBM AIX and HP-UX. Having the source code available helps the exploit developer, who can more quickly understand the internals of the subsystem/kernel he or she is targeting and more easily search for exploitation vectors. Auditing an open source system is also generally considered a simpler task than searching for vulnerability on a closed source system: reverse-engineering a closed system is more time-consuming and requires the ability to grasp the overall picture from reading large portions of assembly code.
We provide a detailed example of a design flaw in the “Kernel-Generated User-Land Vulnerabilities” subsection later in this chapter. Of course, not all bugs are security bugs. In fact, bugs usually have nothing to do with security. Simply put, a bug becomes a security issue as soon as someone figures out how to gain privileges from it. Sometimes the approach used to exploit a specific bug can be generalized and reused on similar bugs. In these cases, we are referring to bug classes and exploiting techniques.
A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core by Enrico Perla, Massimiliano Oldani